Free Software at Schools

Installing and Maintaining a Skolelinux/Debian-edu Network

Based on Debian Sarge, prerelease pr05

Klaus Ade Johnstad

Table of Contents
1. Where and How to Get Help
1.1. Mailing lists Belonging to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu Project
1.2. IRC Chat Channel Skolelinux/Debian-edu
1.3. Inviting a Skolelinux/Debian-edu Knowledgeable Person into Your Computer
1.4. Permanent Backdoor into a Skolelinux/Debian-edu Machine with a SSH Tunnel
1.5. More In-Depth Linux Documentation
1.5.1. Documentation and Help Pages Already Installed
1.5.2. This Document as a pdf-File
1.5.3. Skåne Sjælland Linux User Group, Friheden til at skrive bøger(Freedom to Write Books)
1.5.4. The Linux Documentation Project
1.5.5. Manuals for
1.5.6. LTSP, Linux Thin Client Server Project(LTSP)
2. Getting the "Right" Hardware
2.1. Firewall/Router
2.2. Main Server
2.3. Thin Client Server
2.4. The Thin Client
2.5. Workstation
2.6. Laptop
2.7. Combined profiles
2.7.1. Combi-server, mainserver+ltspserver
2.7.2. mainserver with GUI, mainserver+workstation
2.7.3. Not all can be combined!
3. Firewall/Router for Skolelinux/Debian-edu
3.1. Hardware
3.1.1. The Latest Version of Coyote Linux
3.2. Placement of the firewall/router in a Skolelinux/Debian-edu Network
3.3. Creation of a Coyote Linux Floppy
3.3.1. Creating a Coyote Linux Floppy on a Windows Machine
3.4. Upgrading to Newer Versions of Coyote Linux
3.5. Coyote Linux Bootup
3.6. Coyote Linux Command Line Login
3.7. Coyote Linux Web Administrator
3.8. Login via SSH
3.9. Useful Commands in Coyote Linux
3.10. Coyote Linux as an Ordinary DHCP-Server in a Non-Skolelinux/Debian-edu Network
3.11. Coyote Linux and different ISP
3.12. Supported network card and Driver Modules Used
3.12.1. Supported network card and Driver Modules Used
3.12.2. The Special Case of 3Com 509 ISA network card
3.13. Further Information about Coyote Linux
4. Network Architecture
4.1. Useful diagram for placement of server according to choice of profiles.
4.1.1. The different profiles on different servers.
4.1.2. The two profiles Main-server and Thinclientserver combined to make Combiserver
5. Skolelinux/Debian-edu Installation
5.1. Preparing the Machine to Boot from CD-ROM
5.1.1. Using Smart Boot manager (SBM)
5.2. A Short Description of the Profiles in Skolelinux/Debian-edu
6. The First Stage of Skolelinux/Debian-edu Installation
6.1. Where to get the Skolelinux/Debian-edu CD-ROM
6.1.1. Downloading the Skolelinux/Debian-eduCD-ROM
6.1.2. Get the latest CD sent by snail mail.
6.2. First Stage
6.2.1. Different bootoptions
6.2.2. Choosing language
6.2.3. Virtual terminal VT
6.2.4. The special case of SATA-disks and the missing cdrom
6.2.5. Information about profiles
6.2.6. Manually adjusting the partition size for automatic partitioning
6.2.7. The Various Profiles in Skolelinux/Debian-edu
6.2.8. Installation complete
7. The Second Stage of Skolelinux/Debian-edu Installation
7.1. Second Stage
7.1.1. Something Went Wrong...
7.1.2. Turning off, or Rebooting the Machine
7.1.3. Bugzilla
8. Fine-tuning
8.1. The Famous Command Line
8.1.1. Shell/Terminal
8.2. How to Edit System Configuration Files
8.2.1. How to Edit System Configuration Files with kwrite
8.2.2. How to Edit System Configuration Files
8.3. The Pager application More
8.4. Installing a Kernel with Support for up to 4GB RAM and Multi-Processors
8.5. Changing the Size of the LVM-Partitions
8.5.1. Resizing the /usr Partition
8.5.2. Resizing /skole/tjener/home0
8.5.3. Resizing /skole/backup
8.5.4. Resizing /var
8.5.5. Resizing /var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles
8.5.6. Swap
8.5.7. Resizing /var/spool/squid
8.5.8. Adding a New Volume(lv)
8.5.9. Adding a New Disk to LVM in Skolelinux/Debian-edu
8.5.10. Activating the lvm-volumes from a KNOPPIX cd
8.6. Editing Host Netgroups
8.6.1. The Netgroup Module
8.6.2. Adding Hosts to a Netgroup
8.6.3. Saving Changes
8.6.4. Adding a New Netgroup
8.6.5. Adding a Subgroup
8.6.6. Deleting a Netgroup
8.6.7. Removing Hosts from a Netgroup
8.6.8. Removing a Subgroup
8.7. Thin Client Setup
8.7.1. Assigning a thinclient a Static IP address
8.7.2. Creating Etherboot ROM Images for Ordinary (non-PXE) network cards.
8.7.3. Special Floppy Disk with Support for 30 network cards
8.7.4. Using the MAC Address to Assign a Fixed IP Number to a Thin Client
8.7.5. Customising Thin Clients
8.8. Do the Network Cards Work?
8.9. Administration of Packages
8.9.1. Updating the Database with Info About Available Packages
8.9.2. Upgrading All Installed Packages to a Newer Version
8.9.3. Overview of Installed Packages
8.9.4. Finding the Name of a Specific Package
8.9.5. Showing Available Information about a Package
8.9.6. Installing a Package
8.9.7. Removing an Installed Package
8.9.8. Installing one Specific Version of a Package
8.9.9. Installing a Package with the Help of dpkg
8.9.10. Searching Through Files that were Installed by a Specific Package
8.9.11. Finding Which Package a File Came From
8.9.12. Making Your Own Local Mirror for Deb-Packages
8.9.13. Upgrade of from 1.1.3 to 2.0
8.9.14. Upgrade OpenClipart
8.10. The Quota System for Hard Drive Space
8.10.1. Stopping the File .xsession-error From Filling up Your Entire Hard Drive
9. Services Out-of-the-Box in Skolelinux/Debian-edu
9.1. Thinclient server
9.1.1. Adding a Printer to a Thin Client
9.2. Ldap server
9.3. SSH server
9.4. rdiff backup server
9.4.1. Comparison of Various Versions of the Same File
9.4.2. Dedicated machine to hold the backups
9.4.3. Slbackup from the Command Line
9.4.4. Slbackup Log Files
9.4.5. Use of slbackup in real-life
9.5. Samba server, windows file and print
9.6. Munin systemstatistics server
9.6.1. SNMP Munin plugin
9.7. DHCP server
9.7.1. Thin Clients
9.7.2. Workstation (Linux, Windows, Mac)
9.7.3. Printers
9.7.4. Thin Client Servers
9.7.5. Changing the ip-range used by thinclients on networkcard eth1
9.8. NTP clockserver
9.9. CUPS printserver
9.10. DNS
9.11. Apache webserver
9.12. syslog server
9.13. Webmin
9.14. Squid
9.15. NFS-server
10. Special Adaptations for your Users
10.1. Deciding Which Directories the Users Should Have
10.2. Automatic Start of Program at Login
10.3. Message to Users
10.3.1. Message to Everyone who Logs in
10.3.2. Message to a Specific User who Logs in.
10.3.3. Giving a Message to All Users That are Logged on
10.3.4. Automatic User Log In
10.3.5. Automatic Input of Username in the Login Window
10.4. Setting up Desktop, Menu bar, etc the Same for Everyone When the User is Created
10.4.1. The Kicker, the Bottom Menu Line
10.4.2. Desktop Icons, Background
11. Useradministration with WLUS in Webmin
11.1.1. Manually move homedirectory and update info in ldap
11.1.2. New user
11.1.3. New users
11.1.4. Editing users, disable/enable login, delete users
11.1.5. Changing a User's Password
11.1.6. Changing a User's Password from the Command Line
11.1.7. Changing the LDAP-Admin Password
11.1.8. Direct Editing of Files in the LDAP-Database.
11.1.9. How to Start with a New "Fresh" LDAP Database?
11.1.10. Delete a user, or group of users
12. Configuration/Use of the Most Used Programs
12.1. Konqueror, File Manager
12.2. Mozilla-Firefox
12.2.1. Acrobat Reader as Plugin for Firefox/Konqueror
12.2.2. Adding a Plugin to view NRK-TV and other film clips on the Internet
12.2.3. Macromedia Flash Player Plugin for Firefox
13. Useful Programs that are not Included on the Skolelinux/Debian-edu CD
13.1. Acrobat Reader
13.2. Mplayer
A. Integration of Other Linux Distributions into Skolelinux/Debian-edu with ldap and autofs
B. Seamless Integration of Mac OS X Machines
C. Smarttech Touchboard
C.1. Setup
C.1.1. SmartBoard Icons for Users
D. Various "Homemade" Solutions
D.1. Downloading New Versions of Skolelinux/Debian-edu CD, in a Smart Way with the Help of rsync
D.2. Preventing Users from Logging onto Several Thin Clients Simultaneously
D.2.1. Kicking Out a User
D.3. Ensuring that all Processes/Programs are Really Finished When Logging Out
D.4. Placing Desktop Icons for Several Users Simultaneously
E. Various Nice Little Scripts
E.1. Little Scripts
E.1.1. Remove Comment Lines
E.1.2. Making Changes in Several Files Simultaneously
F. Contribute to this document and Skolelinux/Debian-edu
F.1. Translate
F.2. Test Skolelinux/Debian-edu on your computer with an emulator, qemu
G. To-do list
List of Tables
3-1. The Various Names Used for the network cards in Coyote Linux
List of Figures
1-1. Help Pages in Konqueror
3-1. An Overview of Placement of the firewall/router in Skolelinux/Debian-edu
3-2. Coyote Linux Windows Creator Welcome Image
3-3. Local Network Setup LAN
3-4. Setting a Password on the Coyote Linux Floppy
3-5. Syslog Server
3-6. Type of Internet Connection WAN
3-7. Static IP configuration
3-8. Do not enable the Coyote Linux DHCP-server!
3-9. Choosing Driver Modules for Your Network Cards NIC
3-10. Choose language
3-11. Creating the Disk
3-12. Coyote Linux Login
3-13. menu, status of network, down
3-14. menu, status of network, up
3-15. Changing the Password
3-16. Coyote Linux Web Administrator
3-17. Coyote Linux Main Menu
3-18. Reboot or shutdown Coyote Linux?
4-1. The different profiles on different servers.
4-2. Combi-server.
5-1. SMB greeting screen
5-2. Saving changes
5-3. System settings
5-4. Rescan all boot records
6-1. Starting up Skolelinux/Debian-edu from the CD
6-2. Disks not found
6-3. Keyboard with US layout, as seen from somewhere within Gnome controlpanel.
6-4. Choosing Language
6-5. Virtual terminal VT
6-6. Information about the Various "Profiles" #1
6-7. Information about the Various "Profiles"#2
6-8. The Various Profiles in Skolelinux/Debian-edu
6-9. Combining different profiles
6-10. Warning! The contents of all your hard drives will be erased!
6-11. Installation complete
7-1. Starting Skolelinux/Debian-edu from the Hard Drive with GRUB [1]
7-2. Skolelinux/Debian-edu Boot in Progress
7-3. Fancy Skolelinux/Debian-edu Boot in Progress
7-4. Welcome to your new Debian System!
7-5. The Root Password
7-6. Type in password
7-7. Repeat password
7-8. Installation is Complete- the Necessary Reboot
7-9. Installation is Complete- no KDM
7-10. Installation is Complete- KDM
7-11. Missing networkcard
7-12. reboot/shutdown from kdm
7-13. Now you may turn of the machine
7-14. modconf apm
8-1. run command
8-2. konsole
8-3. kwrite
8-4. Overview of Netgroups
8-5. Adding Hosts to a Netgroup
8-6. New hosts Added to the Netgroup
8-7. Changes are Saved
8-8. Adding a New Netgroup
8-9. New Group Added
8-10. Adding a Subgroup
8-11. Subgroup Added
8-12. Webmin disk quota icon
8-13. Filesystems with quotas
8-14. quotas for home0
8-15. Edit quota for user klaus
9-1. Webmin Servers
9-2. Slbackup, General
9-3. Slbackup, Backup Details
9-4. Slbackup, Backup Details, Backup Clients
9-5. Slbackup, Backup Details, Backup Server
9-6. Slbackup, Restore
9-7. Slbackup, Restored Files
9-8. Slbackup, Maintenance
9-9. Slbackup, SSH Keys
9-10. Kompare, gui based diff
9-11. Unconfigured Munin
9-12. Munin with Mainserver and Thin Client server
9-13. Munin SNMP firewall
9-14. Konqueror with print:/
9-15. kprint:/ Add new printer
9-16. KDE print welcome screen
9-17. Choose what type of connection you have.
9-18. 33333333333
9-19. 33333333333
9-20. 33333333333
9-21. 33333333333
9-22. 33333333333
9-23. 33333333333
9-24. 33333333333
9-25. 33333333333
9-26. 33333333333
9-27. 33333333333
9-28. 33333333333
9-29. 33333333333
9-30. 33333333333
9-31. Bind forwarder
9-32. Remote logging setup in Coyote Linux
9-33. Remote logging setup in m0n0wall
10-1. Message to Everyone Logged in
10-2. Kicker
11-1. Webmin Login
11-2. Welcome Screen Webmin LDAP User Simple (WLUS)
11-3. Configuration of WLUS
11-4. New User
11-5. Result of New User
11-6. The format of the importfile in a spreadsheet
11-7. File Import
11-8. Importing Users from File
11-9. Result of File Import
11-10. List of Registered Users
11-12. Disable Login
11-13. Re-enabling Login
11-14. Change a users password
11-15. Users logins into Webmin as himself
11-16. WLUS for the user
11-17. Users changes his password
11-18. Change was successful
12-1. File Manager, Home Icon